There have been opponents of the EU for a long time, especially among the Conservatives. When these and other EU skeptics in the Conservative Party had revived the decades-long demand for an EU membership referendum, Cameron rejected this request in a speech on June 29, 2012, but declared the next day that he wanted to attend Achieve “the best for the UK” in the EU. He may also consider holding a referendum for this when the time is right. On January 23, 2013, Cameron announced specifically that if he was re-elected in May 2015, he would have a referendum held in the United Kingdom on whether the country would remain in the EU by 2017 at the latest.
The 2014 European elections had shown that the EU opponents had become firmly entrenched within the electorate and that EU-skeptical attitudes were popular right up to the middle of society. In the 2015 general election, the anti-EU party UKIP won around 12.6% of the vote, but only one of 650 lower house seats due to majority voting, while the Conservatives received an absolute majority of the seats Cameron’s promised post-election law on an EU- Referendum was passed by Parliament in December 2015. The wording of the voting question was as follows: Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union? ”(Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union?) On 23. June 2016, the referendum on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU) took place under David Cameron. The referendum was approved by 51.89% of those involved. After this unexpected decision, Cameron resigned as he himself had pleaded to remain in the EU.
His successor was the previous Minister of the Interior, Theresa May, on July 13, 2016. Theresa May then led the process of leaving the EU and EURATOM in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union on March 29, 2017 by submitting a brief to the European Council Ways. But talks between May’s government and the Labor opposition about a sensible way out of the EU had failed. Due to the renewed postponement of the exit date, Great Britain had to take part in the European elections on May 23rd. The Brexit party, which was only founded in 2019, received 30.5% of the vote. As a result, Theresa May resigned in July 2019 and Boris Johnson was elected her successor by the Conservative Party. However, at the beginning of September parliament passed a law which obliged the Prime Minister to apply to the EU for a further extension, provided that no exit agreement had been ratified by October 19. Since Johnson had expelled the 21 Conservative MPs who had voted for this law from his group, he no longer had a majority in the lower house. On October 17th, the British government and the EU agreed on a modified agreement. However, since the House of Commons postponed the vote on October 19, Johnson was forced to request another postponement of the exit date to January 31, 2020. excluded from his parliamentary group, he no longer had a majority in the lower house. On October 17th, the British government and the EU agreed on a modified agreement. However, since the House of Commons postponed the vote on October 19, Johnson was forced to request another postponement of the exit date to January 31, 2020. excluded from his parliamentary group, he no longer had a majority in the lower house. On October 17th, the British government and the EU agreed on a modified agreement. However, since the House of Commons postponed the vote on October 19, Johnson was forced to request another postponement of the exit date to January 31, 2020.
On October 29, the British House of Commons voted with a large majority for new elections on December 12, 2019. In these new elections, Johnson’s Conservative Party surprisingly won an absolute majority with 365 seats. On December 20, 2019, Parliament approved a draft treaty for the country’s exit from the EU for the first time with 358 votes to 234. This cleared the way for Brexit on January 31, 2020. However, the final vote did not take place until the beginning of January 2020.
Great Britain or the United Kingdom then left the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020 at midnight.
Scotland forms the northern third of Great Britain. The country covers an area of approx. 78,772 km². Scotland has only one land border with England. This runs in the south of Scotland between the inlet Solway Firth and the River Tweed and has a length of 96 km.
Near the current border between the two countries ran between 122 and 128 AD. built Hadrian’s Wall.
This ran over a length of approx. 113 km between the Solway Firth and today’s city of Newcastle and was intended to defend against attacks from the north and monitor border traffic. Hadrian’s Wall was until around 400 AD. when the Romans left Britain in use.
Further north, at the narrowest point in Scotland, between 142 and 144 AD. another wall, the so-called Antonine Wall, was built. With a length of approx. 60 km, it was half as long as Hadrian’s Wall, but not as elaborately designed.
The small town of Lockerbie is located near today’s border with England, approx. 30 km northeast. The place gained notoriety after the bomb attack on PanAm flight 103 on December 21, 1988.
The attack carried out by Libyan terrorists caused the machine to explode over the city, killing 270 people. 11 of these terrorist victims came from Lockerbie. Scotland borders Northern Ireland across the Irish Sea.
It should be pointed out here again that Scotland, together with England and Wales, belongs to Great Britain. The referendum of September 18, 2014 on Scotland’s independence from Great Britain was rejected by the Scots.
But Britain’s exit from the EU could lead to new independence movements.
In addition to the border between England and Scotland, which is currently comparable to the borders between two German federal states, numerous natural borders can be made out due to the topography of Scotland with its numerous deep inlets.