General information about Kyrgyzstan
The official name is the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy, Kyrgyz Republic). It is located in the northeast of Central Asia. The area is 199.9 thousand km2, the population is 5.012 million people. (2002). The state language is Kyrgyz, the Russian language has been given official status. The capital is the city of Bishkek (0.8 million inhabitants, 2002). Public holiday – State Independence Day
on August 31 (since 1991). The monetary unit is the som.
Member of more than 120 international organizations, incl. UN (since 1992) and a number of its specialized organizations, IBRD (since 1992), IDA (since 1992), IFC (since 1992), IMF (since 1992), OSCE (since 1992), OIC (since 1992), Asian Development Bank (since 1994), Islamic Development Bank (since 1993), EBRD (since 1992), CIS (since 1991), CAC (since 1994), EurAsEC (since 2000),
SCO (since 1996), etc.
Geography of Kyrgyzstan
Located between 75° east longitude, 41° north latitude. Has no access to the sea. It borders in the north with Kazakhstan (1113 km), in the west with Uzbekistan (1374 km), in the southwest with Tajikistan (972 km), in the southeast with China (1049 km).
Kyrgyzstan is located within two mountain systems – Tien Shan (large northeastern part) and Pamir-Alay (southwestern part), separated by high mountain valleys and basins: Talas and Chui in the north, Alai in the south, part of the Fergana in the southwest. west, Issyk-Kul in the east.
Average altitude 2750 m, approx. 1/3 of the territory is located at an altitude of 400 to 3000 m. The highest point is Pobeda Peak (7439 m) in the Tien Shan mountains, the lowest is 394 m (in the southwest).
The longest rivers (length across the country, km): Naryn (535), Chu (221), Kyzyl-Suu (210), Talas (210), Chatkal (205), Sary-Jaz (198). There are 1932 lakes in Kyrgyzstan, the largest are Issyk-Kul (6.2 thousand km2, depth up to 668 m), Sonkul (0.3
thousand km2, depth up to 22 m), Chatyr-Kul (0.2 thousand km2, depth up to 20.4 m).
The soils are mainly sierozem, in the mountains – chestnut and mountain chernozems. The vegetation is of desert and semi-desert type, in the mountains there are forests, meadows and mountain steppes. Among the animals there are rare species: Tien Shan bear, snow leopard, red wolf.
Minerals: significant reserves of gold, rare metals, iron ores (up to 10 billion tons), mercury, antimony, tin, lead, zinc, coal (balance reserves 2.3 billion tons); hydropower resources (potential reserves of 162.7 billion kWh); oil (10 million tons), natural gas, building materials, etc.
According to bridgat, the climate is continental. The average temperature in January is from -2.2°С to -29.1°С, in July from +4.1°С to +26.8°С.
Population of Kyrgyzstan
According to the 1989 census, the population of Kyrgyzstan was 4290 thousand people, by 2002 the population increased by 722 thousand people. Birth rate 19.8‰, infant mortality 22.6 people. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy is 68.7 years, incl. men – 65 years, women – 72.6 years (2001). Age structure: 0-14 years old – 33.6%, 15-29 years old – 28.3%, 30-55 years old – 28.6%, 56-69 years old – 5.9%, 70 years and older – 3, 6%. In the entire population of men 49.4%, women 50.6%.
From January 1, 1999, the age of entitlement to a pension is gradually increased by 4 months. per year in order to reach 63 years for men and 58 years for women by January 1, 2007. In 2003 he was 61 years 8 months. for men and 56 years 8 months. for women.
34.9% of the population lives in cities, 65.1% in rural areas (2002).
97% of the population is literate. For every 1000 people 105 people aged 15 and over have higher education, 806 people have secondary education.
According to the 1999 census, 64.8% of the population were Kyrgyz, 13.8% Uzbeks, 12.5% Russians, 1.1% Ukrainians and Dungans each, 0.4% Germans, 2.5% other nationalities. (According to the 1989 census, the Kyrgyz made up 52.3%, Russians – 21.5%, Uzbeks – 12.9%, Ukrainians – 2.5%, Germans – 2.4%, Tajiks and Kazakhs 0.9% each, others Turkic-speaking citizens – 1.8%, others – 4.8%).
The main languages are Kyrgyz, Russian, Uzbek.
Religion: Sunni Islam, Orthodoxy.