Sweden is located between 11° and 24° east longitude and 55° and 69° north latitude. It is washed from the east by the Baltic Sea and its Gulf of Bothnia, from the southwest by the Øresund, Kattegat and Skagerrak straits. The total length of the heavily indented coastline exceeds 7 thousand km. Along the entire coast there are thousands of islands that form large archipelagos. The coast is characterized by an abundance of skerries – clusters of small coastal islands and rocks. A particularly extensive skerry archipelago is located near Stockholm. The Skagerrak coast north of Gothenburg also has a significant indentation. In the Baltic Sea, Sweden owns two large islands – Gotland (3001 km2) and Öland (1344 km2). It borders with Norway in the west (1619 km), with Finland – in the northeast (586 km).
Sweden is dominated by low plateaus and hilly plains. The relatively flat terrain is dotted with many lakes – there are more than 100,000 of them. 16% of the territory is covered with mountains. In the northwest, a long mountain range stretches – the Scandinavian Mountains up to 2111 m high (Mount Kebnekaise). In Central Sweden, the Central Swedish Lowland is located – the most populated and economically developed part of the country. Further south is the Småland Upland. The extreme south of the country – the Skåne peninsula – is a vast plain with fertile soils, this is the main agricultural region.
The bowels of Sweden are rich in metals and poor in mineral fuels. Swedish iron ore deposits are among the richest in the world both in terms of ore concentration and metal content. The main iron ore district, where St. 80% of all iron reserves in the country are located beyond the Arctic Circle, in Lapland. The largest deposit is Kirunavaara. Lapland ores are 2/3 metal, but contain a lot of phosphorus, so their industrial use became possible only in the con. 19th century after the discovery of the Thomas method of melting. Another iron ore region – Bergslagen, known since the Middle Ages – is located in Central Sweden. There is less ore here, but it has a low content of harmful impurities of phosphorus and sulfur and has long served as the basis for the development of Swedish high-quality metallurgy. Among the deposits of non-ferrous metals, the most significant are located on the Norrland Plateau. These are deposits of complex sulfide ores in the Buliden-Christineberg region, containing copper, zinc, lead, gold, silver, sulfur pyrite, and arsenic; deposits of lead (Leisvall) and copper (Aitik). Previously, one of the richest copper deposits in all of Europe near the city of Falun in Central Sweden was severely depleted. The reserves of uranium contained in the deposits of bituminous shale in Central Sweden are very large. Previously, one of the richest copper deposits in all of Europe near the city of Falun in Central Sweden was severely depleted. The reserves of uranium contained in the deposits of bituminous shale in Central Sweden are very large. Previously, one of the richest copper deposits in all of Europe near the city of Falun in Central Sweden was severely depleted. The reserves of uranium contained in the deposits of bituminous shale in Central Sweden are very large.
Sweden is located almost entirely, except for its extreme south, in the zone of podzolic soils. In the south of the country, especially on the Skåne peninsula, the most fertile brown forest soils on the entire Scandinavian peninsula dominate.
Thanks to the warm Atlantic Gulf Stream and the westerly winds, the climate in Sweden is milder than in other countries located at the same latitudes. Although Stockholm lies almost on the same parallel with South Greenland, the average temperature in July is approx. +18°C. In winter, the average temperature in the capital is only slightly below zero, and snowfall is moderate. In the south, a mild, humid climate of the marine type, significant precipitation. The climate of the eastern regions of Central Sweden is more continental. Winters in Northern Sweden are harsh, snowy and long.
According to bridgat.com, the relief and climate of the country favor the development of a dense network of rivers and lakes. The rivers flow in narrow valleys and abound with rapids and waterfalls. They are mainly used as energy sources. In terms of hydropower reserves, Sweden is second only to Norway in Western Europe. The most energy-rich rivers in Northern Sweden, originating on the eastern slopes of the Scandinavian mountains, crossing the stepped Norrland Plateau and flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia. This is primarily Luleelf, Umeelf, Ongermanelven, Indalselven, Dalelven. The longest rivers are: Muonioelven – Turneelven (570 km), Dalelven (520 km), Klarelven – Geta Elv (520 km). Numerous lakes and expansions in river basins serve as natural reservoirs that regulate water flow throughout the year. Rivers and lakes occupy 9% of the total area of the country. The largest of them lie in the lowland part of Central Sweden. The largest lake in Western Europe, Lake Vänern, with an area of 5585 km2, stands out in particular. The short but full-flowing river Geta-Elv flows out of the lake and flows into the Kattegat with a high Trollhättan waterfall. Other large lakes: Vättern (1912 km2), Mälaren (1140 km2) and Elmaren (484 km2).