Italy Medieval Arts Part 3

He first of all mentions Apulia, that is, the territory of the continental part of the kingdom of Sicily (including the current regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Calabria), distinguishing, with respect to the Apennine ridge that crosses it, its western and Tyrrhenian side from the east and the Adriatic; then Rome, that is the original Patrimonium sancti Petri, corresponding to present-day Lazio (for Dante, as for Paul, Latium was Italy); the Ducatus, that is the Duchy of Spoleto (the cities of Perugia, Orvieto, Viterbo and Civita Castellana are given as partly Roman, partly Spoleto); Tuscia, that is Tuscany proper, not also, as can be seen from what has just been said about the Duchy of Spoleto, Roman Tuscia; the Ianuensis Marchia, that is Genoa and its territory; the Marchia Anconitana, that is the current Marche; the Romandiola, that is Romagna, with Forlì as its center; Lombardy, much larger than the present one, but not extending to the whole of the Italy northern as in other authors (for Dante it included Ferrara and Piacenza and then Modena, Reggio and Parma, as well as, implicitly, Cremona; the location of Piedmont is uncertain; Bologna is given on the border between Lombardy and Romagna); the Marchia Trivisiana cum Venetiis, that is the mainland of the Veneto plus Venice; Forum Iulii, that is the duchy of Friuli, so called from the name of the ancient Roman colony, also mentioned by Paul, corresponding to the od. Cividale; Ystria; Sicily and Sardinia. Some names of provinces mentioned by Paolo Diacono survived then: the Venetiae, which are now definitely the name of a city; Tuscia, corresponding to present-day Tuscany and no longer to the great province of Paolo which also included Perugia, Spoleto and Rome; Apulia, which is then to be understood as the homonymous duchy of which the Norman Roberto il Guiscardo was invested in Melfi by Pope Nicholas II in 1059 (“duke of Puglia and Calabria and future duke of Sicily”, as the island was still under Arab-Muslim domination, and where Calabria is that of today and no longer Salento) and which still appears as such in the naming of the Angevin kings of Sicily (“king of Sicily, of the duchy of Puglia and of the principality of Capua”), risen for a sort of synecdoche to indicate the entire southern kingdom, all the more after that, following the Vespers (1282), Sicily had separated from the rest, and waiting for the definitive renunciation of the island by the Angevin kings (1372), the continental part of the former Norman and Swabian kingdom of Sicily assumed the name of the kingdom of Naples; Sicily and Sardinia. Dante, on the other hand, neglects other names of provinces that are found in the list of regions of the Italian Republic today, namely Veneto (the ‘continental’ Venetia); Liguria, which corresponds to Paolo’s Alpes Cottiae; Umbria, then a sub-province of Tuscia; the Campania; Emilia, now joined to Romagna; and Calabria, which, as we have said, corresponds to the former Bruzii. In Dante’s list there are two new regions, no longer of late ancient but early medieval origin, still existing, Lombardy and Romandiola (Romagna), which reflect in the respective coronyms the sedimentation of the events narrated by Paul in the rest of his Historia, all centered from that point forward on the clash-meeting between the Lombards and the Romans in Italy. Moreover, the presence of the Lombards, which gradually expanded starting from 569, the moment in which “Alboino, having entered Liguria, made his entrance in Milan” (II, 25), was not limited to Lombardy, the region that perpetuates his memory, more or less extended according to the times and sometimes, in the same time, depending on the authors; nor the presence of the Romans – in which the only indigenous people of the peninsula living in the territories that, after the invasion, continued to be part of the Roman Empire (for moderns, Byzantine), are to be seen – was limited to the Romandiola, the region that it took its name, which also underwent not negligible changes in its conformation (the only current provinces of Ravenna, Forlì and Rimini, or even those of Bologna and Ferrara). the only trace of the effects of the Lombard domination found in Dante’s description of Italy. This domination, which ended up being very extensive in square kilometers, appeared as compact in the Po valley, but leopard-skinned in the rest of the peninsula. Divided into duchies, the Lombard kingdom had little cohesion from beginning to end. In particular, the frontier duchies, such as those of Friuli and Trento and, in addition to the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, that of Tuscia, had a large autonomy, also facilitated by geography. And, in Dante’s description, according to, Tuscany is duly listed, at this point, by now, a historical region, and Friuli, this second, however, not a historical region, but a committee-duchy, territorial domain since 1077 of the patriarch of Aquileia, closely connected with the German Empire, as, again in the name of ‘crossing politics’, so was the committee of Trento, over which the bishop of this city had full jurisdiction, which Dante does not mention.Also in Dante’s description, what had been the central nucleus of Lombard domination, namely Padania, does not figure as a whole unique, like a single large Lombardy, but it is divided into two parts, Lombardy (however larger, for Dante, than the present, as it includes almost all of today’s Emilia) and the Marca Trevigiana. It was, in some way, as if the distinction resurfaced, dating back to the Lombard age and soon fallen into disuse, between western Padania, or Neustria, and eastern Padania, or Austrasia. exclusion of the south-eastern area (Adria, Rovigo), placed at the northern limit of the lands of Byzantine tradition and Ravenna influence, it was born in the century. 10th as Marca Veronese.

Italy Medieval Arts 3