Italy Medieval Arts Part 4

Detached from the kingdom of Italy and united first to the Duchy of Bavaria, then to that of Carinthia, it took its name from the city which, due to its position at the entrance or, if you prefer, at the mouth of the Adige valley, was of great strategic importance. But, during the century. 13 °, coinciding with the policy of Frederick II in Italy Northeast and with the affirmation of the personal dominion of Ezzelino III da Romano over the cities of the Marca itself, he changed it and assumed that of Marca Trevigiana, which “no longer indicated a territorial structure subject to a single power, albeit increasingly weak, but a geographically understood territory, at the time of the fall of the kingdom of Pavia, into a principality, which split, in 849, into the principalities of Benevento and Salerno, a city of which the first prince of Benevento, Arechi II (758-787), had already made the his second residence, and in the county of Capua, for a long time in the balance between autonomy and dependence on one or the other principality, but which also later became a principality. These three Lombard potentates, very often in conflict with each other, remained alive until the Norman conquest, together constituting the minor Longobardia of modern historiography. While the principality of Capua was still granted as a fief in 1059 by Nicolò II to the Norman Riccardo d’Aversa, eventually being mentioned in the naming of the kings of Sicily, the coronym Principality survived, even up to the beginning of the century. 19 °, with administrative value, to the loss of independence of the minor Longobardia, splitting under the Angevins into two provinces, corresponding, respectively, to the current prov. of Benevento and Avellino, and to that of Salerno with part of Lucania, called, with reference to the Apennine ridge that separated them, Principato Ulterior (Ultra) and Principato Citerior (Citra). But it was above all the latter who “kept alive the tradition of its previous unity”, since “the passage of Benevento to papal sovereignty [in 1051] effectively deprived the province not only of its historical point of reference, but also […] of the only urban center of respectable size and consolidated city vocation between the Campania and Apulian areas ” (Galasso, 1992, p. 889).Romagna is a modern restoration, a derivative not from Romandiola, which is the name with which Dante mentions this region, but from Romania, a name now used mainly by linguists to indicate the area of spread of Latin, but which originally indicated the set of territories from which the Roman Empire was constituted, including those of the Greek language. It is in this sense that Orosius uses it (The stories against the pagans, VII, 43), who wrote between 416 and 418, when he attributed to the Gothic king Ataulfo ​​the intention of making Romania a Gothia. diminutive, which stands for ‘little Romania’, or, as it was called, Romagnola. Since it is not known for sure when it came into use, it cannot even be said whether Romania, it had been the seat of the unified supreme command, which towards the end of the century. 6 ° would have taken the name of Exarchate of Italy, which headed a series of duchies (Istria, Venice, Pentapolis, Rome, Naples, later also Calabria and Ferrara), in which the residual imperial presence in the peninsula was divided, while Sicily depended directly on Constantinople. During the century. 8 °, with the loss of the function of the Exarchate of Italy as a unified political-military command of the Byzantine dominions, the term of Exarchate began to be used in reference to the Ravenna area, and sometimes also to the Pentapolis, as the name of the geographical region which, having fallen into desuetude ‘Exarchate’ (first in the papal chancellery, then in the imperial one), would have ended up taking the name of Romandiola, however, now referring only to Ravenna, Rome is evidently for Dante the State of the Church, but he, by the fact that he lists Ducatus, Marchia Anconitana and Romandiola separately, shows that he wants to disregard the results achieved by the recovery policy, begun by Pope Innocent III and then successfully continued, after a series of partial retreats, by his successors, tending to see recognized the rights that Pepin and Charlemagne had ceded to the Church over those territories, without this being succeeded in asserting its consecrated claims in donations, and promises of donations, carolinge.

In short, according to, Dante still has in mind what can be defined as the first State of the Church and that at the end of the century 12 ° is mentioned as Patrimonium sancti Petri, with a designation that, originally (starting from the fourth-fifth decade of the 6th century), it was used to indicate the new, large patrimonial complexes in which the scattered landed possessions of the Church were grouped, each of which was then distinguished by a proper name that it referred to the province, the city or the communication route, in which, next to which or along which it was located.

Italy Medieval Arts 4