Botswana Tomorrow

Botswana is located in Southern Africa, bordered by Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast, and South Africa to the south and southeast. It is a landlocked country with a diverse range of landscapes, including savannas, deserts, and wetlands.



Botswana has a semi-arid climate characterized by hot summers and mild winters. Rainfall is low and erratic, with the majority of precipitation occurring during the summer months. Temperatures can vary widely across the country, with cooler temperatures in the Kalahari Desert and warmer temperatures in the northern regions.


Botswana is home to a remarkable array of wildlife, including the famous Big Five: elephants, lions, leopards, rhinoceroses, and buffalo. Other iconic species include giraffes, zebras, cheetahs, and wildebeests. The Okavango Delta is a particularly rich area for wildlife viewing, with numerous bird species and aquatic animals.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Botswana is the Okavango River, which flows from Angola into Botswana, forming the Okavango Delta. Other major rivers include the Chobe River, which forms part of Botswana’s northern border with Namibia, and the Limpopo River, which marks the border with South Africa.

Highest Mountains

Botswana is relatively flat, with no significant mountain ranges. The highest point in the country is Tsodilo Hills, a sandstone rock formation in the northwest, rising to an elevation of 1,489 meters (4,885 feet) above sea level.



Botswana has a rich archaeological heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back to the Stone Age. The San people, also known as Bushmen, are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of the region, leaving behind rock paintings and engravings that provide insights into their way of life.

Early Kingdoms

Historically, Botswana was inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Tswana, Kalanga, and Khoisan peoples. The Tswana people established several powerful chiefdoms, such as the Bangwato and Bakwena, which played a significant role in shaping the region’s history.

Colonial Era

Botswana came under British colonial rule in the late 19th century and was known as Bechuanaland Protectorate. The British maintained indirect rule through the local chiefs, preserving much of the traditional governance structure. Botswana gained independence peacefully in 1966 and adopted its current name.

Modern Age

Since gaining independence, Botswana has experienced rapid economic growth and development, fueled by its abundant natural resources, particularly diamonds. The country has a stable democratic government and is known for its commitment to wildlife conservation and environmental sustainability.


Botswana has a population of approximately 2.4 million people, with the majority residing in urban areas. The population is ethnically diverse, with the Tswana people being the largest ethnic group, followed by the Kalanga, Basarwa (San), and others. English and Setswana are the official languages, with Setswana being the most widely spoken.

Administrative Divisions

Botswana is divided into nine districts, each with its own administrative structure and government. These districts are further subdivided into sub-districts, villages, and wards.

Administrative Divisions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. Central District – Population: 1,226,000
  2. Chobe District – Population: 271,000
  3. Ghanzi District – Population: 111,000
  4. Kgalagadi District – Population: 53,000
  5. Kgatleng District – Population: 183,000
  6. Kweneng District – Population: 333,000
  7. North-East District – Population: 268,000
  8. North-West District – Population: 242,000
  9. South-East District – Population: 433,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Gaborone
  2. Francistown
  3. Molepolole
  4. Serowe
  5. Selebi-Phikwe
  6. Maun
  7. Mahalapye
  8. Palapye
  9. Lobatse
  10. Ramotswa

Education Systems

Education in Botswana is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. The government operates a system of public schools at all levels, from primary to tertiary education. Botswana has several universities and colleges, including the University of Botswana and Botswana International University of Science and Technology.



Botswana has several airports, with the busiest being Sir Seretse Khama International Airport in Gaborone. Other major airports include Francistown International Airport, Maun International Airport, and Kasane International Airport.


Botswana has a limited railway network, operated by Botswana Railways. The total length of railways in the country is approximately 888 kilometers (552 miles), connecting major cities and mining areas.


Botswana has a well-developed road network, with paved highways connecting major cities and towns. The A1 highway, also known as the Trans-Kalahari Highway, is the main arterial route running from Lobatse in the south to Kazungula in the north.


Botswana is a landlocked country and does not have any major ports. However, it has access to the ports of neighboring countries such as South Africa and Namibia for maritime trade.

Country Facts

  • Population: 2.4 million
  • Capital: Gaborone
  • Languages: English, Setswana
  • Religion: Christianity (predominantly), Traditional beliefs
  • Race: Tswana, Kalanga, Basarwa, others
  • Currency: Botswana Pula (BWP)
  • ISO Country Code: BW
  • International Calling Code: +267
  • Top-level Domain: .bw